Pathomechanisms of Immune-Mediated Alopecia

    May 2019 in “ International Immunology
    Alessandra Anzai, Eddy Hsi Chun Wang, Eunice Lee, Valéria Aoki, Angela M. Christiano
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    TLDR The study concluded that immune cells attacking hair follicles cause hair loss in alopecia, with genetics and environment also playing a role, and highlighted the potential of certain treatments.
    The 2019 study "Pathomechanisms of immune-mediated alopecia" investigated the mechanisms behind immune-mediated hair loss, specifically alopecia areata (AA) and primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA). The study found that AA is primarily driven by T cells, which attack hair follicles, causing hair loss. Other immune cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and NK cells, also play a role in this process, as do cytokines, small proteins that aid in immune responses. The study also found that genetic and environmental factors contribute to AA and PCA, with certain genes and immune cells, particularly CD8+NKG2D+ T cells, playing a significant role in AA. The study also noted the effectiveness of Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKi) in treating AA. Changes in the gut microbiome were suggested as potential triggers for AA. For PCA, potential genetic components and external triggers, including scalp trauma and the use of certain skin care products, were identified. The study concluded that understanding these mechanisms is crucial for developing specific and effective treatments.
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      Linear alopecia areata

      research Linear alopecia areata

      4 citations ,   November 2018 in “JAAD case reports”
      Alopecia areata can sometimes appear as a straight line of hair loss instead of round patches.