The Implication of Mechanistic Approaches and the Role of the Microbiome in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Review

    January 2023 in “Metabolites
    TLDR Changes in gut bacteria can contribute to the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), affecting metabolism, immunity, and causing inflammation. Treatments may involve adjusting these factors.
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition affecting women's reproductive health, with symptoms such as hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, irregular menstruation, and infertility. The review suggests that alterations in the gut microbiome play a significant role in the development of PCOS, affecting metabolic and immunological function, and causing inflammation. PCOS patients show changes in gut microbiota, with a higher prevalence of certain bacterial species and lower levels of beneficial bacteria. These changes can lead to systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, and affect sex hormone changes. The review also highlights the role of metabolites such as bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ceramides, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in the development of PCOS. Potential treatments for PCOS may include modulating these factors, such as administering exogenous IL-22 and altering the gut microbiome. However, more research is needed to fully understand these mechanisms and their implications for treatment.
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