The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

    January 2012 in “ Advances in Urology
    Faris Azzouni, Alejandro Godoy, Yun Li, James L. Mohler
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    TLDR The document concludes that the 5 alpha-reductase enzymes are important in steroid metabolism and related to various human diseases, with inhibitors used to treat conditions like male pattern baldness and prostate issues.
    The document from 2012 provides a comprehensive review of the 5 alpha-reductase (5α-R) isozyme family, highlighting their crucial role in steroid metabolism and their implications for human diseases. It explains how these enzymes convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which has a higher affinity for androgen receptors. The review discusses the discovery of 5α-R type 2 deficiency and its effects, such as ambiguous genitalia in males and the absence of conditions like benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. It also covers the development of 5α-R inhibitors, which are used to treat male pattern baldness, acne, and BPH. The review details the gene locations, biochemical properties, tissue distribution, and clinical significance of the three isozymes (5α-R1, 5α-R2, and 5α-R3) and their role in diseases like prostate cancer, where 5α-R1 expression increases and 5α-R2 decreases compared to benign tissue. The document also discusses the potential of 5α-R3 as a biomarker for malignancy and the use of 5α-R inhibitors in treating androgen-stimulated skin disorders, although it notes that more research is needed to fully understand these roles.
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