Procyanidin Oligomers Counteract TGF-β<sub>1</sub>- and TGF-β<sub>2</sub>-Induced Apoptosis in Hair Epithelial Cells: An Insight into Their Mechanisms

    January 2006 in “ Skin pharmacology and physiology
    Ayako Kamimura, Tomoya Takahashi, Masaaki Morohashi, Yosuke Takano
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    TLDR Procyanidin compounds from apples and barley promote hair growth and prevent hair cell death.
    The study from 2006 investigated the effects of procyanidin oligomers, compounds found in apples and barley, on hair growth. It was found that these compounds stimulate hair growth by promoting hair epithelial cell growth and inducing the anagen phase in a murine model. The study explored the mechanisms behind this by examining the interaction with the TGF-beta signaling pathway, which regulates the catagen phase, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, which is related to cell proliferation. The results showed that procyanidin B-2 and B-3 could counteract the growth-inhibiting and apoptotic effects of TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(2) on hair epithelial cells. Procyanidin B-2 was also found to upregulate the expression of MEK-1/2, suggesting that the hair growth effects of procyanidin oligomers may be due to both the activation of MEK and protection against TGF-beta-induced apoptosis, which is thought to trigger the catagen phase in the hair cycle.
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