Genetic basis of skin appendage development

    Marja L. Mikkola
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    TLDR Hair, teeth, and mammary glands develop similarly at first but use different genes later.
    The development of hair follicles, teeth, and mammary glands relied on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and conserved signalling molecules. Early stages of these skin appendages were similar, starting with the formation of a placode that invaginated to form a bud. These stages required the same genes and signalling pathways, leading to similar phenotypes when altered. Post-bud stage, each organ exhibited unique epithelial growth patterns, using more specific genes.
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