The Vitamin B5/Coenzyme A Axis: A Target for Immunomodulation?

    May 2024 in “European Journal of Immunology
    Marie‐Jeanne Richard, Virginie Millet, Franck Galland, Philippe Naquet
    TLDR Vitamin B5 and coenzyme A may help regulate the immune system and could improve treatments for chronic diseases and cancer.
    The review discusses the role of Vitamin B5 and coenzyme A (CoA) in immune cell activation and chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer. Vitamin B5, a precursor to CoA, is crucial for maintaining gut mucosal barrier efficacy and limiting Th17 immunity in mouse models of IBD. Vitamin B5 deficiency is a characteristic of human IBD. The CoA/AcCoA ratio is identified as a potential regulator of pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) activity and Th17 pathogenicity. The study also found that CoA concentration was higher in IL-22-secreting CD8+ T cells (Tc22) than in other types of T cells, and that adding exogenous CoA to cell cultures induced Tc22 polarization even without the presence of certain polarizing cytokines. This Tc22 polarization was found to have a strong cytotoxic activity against tumors, and supplementation with pantothenate (a form of VitB5) enhanced the response to immunotherapy in a melanoma model. Lastly, pantothenate supplementation has been used to enhance wound healing and hair follicle development, and to restore hair growth.
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