COVID-19 and Hypopituitarism

    Stefano Frara, Paola Loli, Agnese Allora, Chiara Santini, Luigi di Filippo, Pietro Mortini, Maria Fleseriu, Andrea Giustina
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    TLDR COVID-19 and hypopituitarism (reduced pituitary gland function) are linked, with the latter's related health issues potentially worsening COVID-19 outcomes, and COVID-19 possibly increasing risk for pituitary complications.
    The document discusses the bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and hypopituitarism, a condition characterized by reduced function of the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism is often accompanied by metabolic complications such as arterial hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and vertebral fractures, which have been associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. The document also suggests that COVID-19 could be a risk factor for pituitary apoplexy, a condition characterized by sudden hemorrhage and blood infarction of the pituitary gland. Patients with adrenal insufficiency, often associated with hypopituitarism, have double the mortality rate compared to the general population due to high cardiovascular and infection risk. The document also presents case studies of patients with hypopituitarism who contracted COVID-19, suggesting that the severity of the disease is not different from the general population, but the management might be more challenging due to sudden onset of pituitary hormonal failure and adequate replacement therapies. The document concludes by discussing the potential impact of COVID-19 on patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and diabetes insipidus (DI), but notes that there is currently no data on the prevalence or severity of COVID-19 in these patients.
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