Polycystic ovary syndrome

    August 2016 in “Nature Reviews Disease Primers
    Ricardo Azziz, Enrico Carmina, Zi-Jiang Chen, Andrea Dunaif, Joop S.E. Laven, Richard S. Legro, Daria Lizneva, Barbara Natterson-Horowtiz, Helena Teede, Bulent O. Yildiz
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    TLDR Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women that can cause metabolic, reproductive, and psychological issues, and requires lifestyle changes and medication for management.
    The document from 2016 provides a comprehensive overview of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), a condition affecting 5-20% of women of reproductive age, characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. It discusses the associated metabolic dysfunctions such as insulin resistance, the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and cardiovascular events, as well as the psychological impact, including depression and anxiety. The document also explores the genetic factors, with nearly 100 susceptibility genes identified, and the pathophysiological mechanisms, such as increased Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) levels and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) hypersecretion. It emphasizes the importance of screening for metabolic and psychological morbidities, lifestyle interventions as the first-line treatment, and various pharmacological treatments for managing metabolic dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. The document also highlights the need for future research to understand the genotype-phenotype associations, underlying mechanisms, and the development of novel treatments for hirsutism and androgenic alopecia.
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