Recent Advances in Genome-Editing Technology with CRISPR/Cas9 Variants and Stimuli-Responsive Targeting Approaches within Tumor Cells: A Future Perspective of Cancer Management

    Khaled S. Allemailem, Saleh A. Almatroodi, Ahmad Almatroudi, Faris Alrumaihi, Waleed Al Abdulmonem, Wafa Abdullah I. Al-Megrin, Adel Nasser Aljamaan, Arshad Husain Rahmani, Amjad Ali Khan
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    TLDR New CRISPR/Cas9 variants and nanotechnology-based delivery methods are improving cancer treatment, but choosing the best variant and overcoming certain limitations remain challenges.
    The review discusses the recent advancements in genome-editing technology using CRISPR/Cas9 variants and stimuli-responsive targeting approaches within tumor cells. Various CRISPR/Cas9 variants like Sniper-Cas9, eSpCas9 (1.1), SpCas9-HF1, HypaCas9, xCas9, and evoCas9 have been developed to improve genome-editing specificity, but choosing the ideal variant for a specific target sequence remains a challenge. The review also highlights the use of nanotechnology-based stimuli-responsive delivery approaches, such as pH, glutathione (GSH), photo, thermal, and magnetic responsive systems, which enhance cellular internalization and controlled release. Despite the potential of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cancer management, there are still critical constraints that need to be addressed for clinical translations.
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